The NFE2L2/NRF2 oncogene and transcription factor drives a gene expression program that promotes cancer progression, metabolic reprogramming, immune evasion and chemoradiation resistance. Patient stratification by NRF2 activity may guide treatment decisions to improve outcome. Here, we developed a mass spectrometry (MS)-based targeted proteomics assay based on internal standard triggered parallel reaction monitoring (IS-PRM) to quantify 69 NRF2 pathway components and targets as well as 21 proteins of broad clinical significance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We improved the existing IS-PRM acquisition algorithm, called SureQuant™, to increase throughput, sensitivity, and precision. Testing the optimized platform on 27 lung and upper aerodigestive cancer cell models revealed 35 NRF2 responsive proteins. In formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) HNSCCs, NRF2 signaling intensity positively correlated with NRF2 activating mutations and with SOX2 protein expression. PD-L2/CD273 and protein markers of T-cell infiltration correlated positively with one another and with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection status. p16/CDKN2A protein expression positively correlated with the HPV oncogenic E7 protein, and confirmed the presence of translationally active virus. This work establishes a clinically actionable HNSCC protein biomarker assay capable of quantifying over 600 peptides from frozen or FFPE archived tissues in under 90 minutes.